Mango (Mangifera indica) is the leading fruit crop of India and considered to be the king of fruits. Besides the delicious taste, excellent flavor, and attractive fragrance, it is rich in vitamin A&C. The tree is hardy in nature, can be grown in a variety of soil, and requires comparatively low maintenance costs. It grows from seeds then the trees can grow up to 10-40 meters in height. They are generally tan-red, yellowish-brown, or pink in color when young. They undergo a series of different shades as they grow and finally are dark green when mature.
Types of Mangoes
The most famous types of mangoes in India are known as Alphonso, Badami, Chausa, Langra, Neelum, Aamrpali, Malda, Banganapalli, and Dasheri.
Ideal Conditions for Mango Cultivation
Climate for Mango Cultivation in India
Mango thrives well under humid and dry conditions. It requires good rainfall during its growing season i.e. June to October and rainless, dry weather from November onwards. Rainy or cloudy weather during flowering favors the incidence of powdery mildew disease and leafhoppers.
The season for Mango Tree Plantation
Planting is done during the months of February and March in irrigated areas. Lastly, in the rain-fed area, the planting is done in July- August period
Time of Fruit Maturity in India:
|February – July||Andhra Pradesh.|
|April – July||Gujrat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.|
|May – August||Bihar, Kamataka, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal.|
|June – August||Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, and Rajasthan.|
|July – September||Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir.|
Soil for Mango Tree Cultivation in India
Mango can be grown on a variety of soils. Poorly drained soils should be avoided. It does not perform well in soils with pH more than 7.8. Alluvial soils with good amount of organic matter and soil pH between 6.5 to 7.5 are best suited for mango orchards.
Water for Mango Cultivation in India
Under North Indian conditions, bearing trees should apply irrigation one week before flowering and then after fruit set. During winter months, the interval of irrigation may be over 25-30 days. Proper moist conditions should be kept from April to October.
Progressive techniques are now taking over and ushering in a new era of mango plantation, As the demand for mango grows, so does the need to innovate and increase the per acre yield of the fruit on a long- term and the subs
Why is Ultra-High Density Plantation for Mango Cultivation in India
There will be a total of about 204 mango fruit trees per hectare from a spacing of 7m by 7m,the average yield per hectare of a mango orchard would be 16000kgs with a yield of 80kg per tree per year.
Numbers of plants required for one hectare are as follows:
|Cultivar||Planting Distance (m)||Square System||Hexagonal System|
|Amrapali||1 X 3.5||392||448|
|Bombay green Dusehari||7×7||196||224|
|Fazli Langra Chausa||10 X 10||100||110|
|Rampur gola||11 X 11||81||90|
As the demand for mango grows, so we have to innovate and increase the per acre yield of the fruit on a long-term and sustainable basis. Now, We improve the product both in quality and quantity, led to developing the technique with Ultra-high density plantation. Under the ultra-high-density method, the mango trees will be planted closer together with lesser space left than in the high density and normal method of cultivation. “At least 800 trees can be planted in one hectare of land under this method.
Benefits of UHDP Farming in mango
- Increases productivity up to 2-3 times
- Reduces water used for irrigation up to 50 %
- Increases fertilizer uptake by plants when fertigation is practiced.
Advantages of Ultra high-density planting system of mango
|The gestation period (years)||10-15||5||3|
|Yield potential||Medium||High||Very high|
Inter-cropping in Mango Farming
Mango intercropping with various fruits and vegetables has been gaining speed in the State as the growers are ‘getting significant returns.’ The Mango cultivation in India that farmers cultivated is 37,178 hectares in the State. Inter-cropping with vegetables and fruits has been found more beneficial to the growers so it could boost total crop production per unit area. … ‘ The Chittoor district tops in the State with as much as 12,345 hectares under inter-cropping in mango farming.
Increase income with intercropping in mango Farming
Intercropping has been suggested to the farmers as a way to increase their income, and they are convinced.
An interesting fact is that the farmers across all the districts are switching over to intercropping in mango farming. Mango farmers are cultivating some vegetables or fruit. “The trend of intercropping in mango farming is catching up…
UHDP Farming In 10 Acres of Land || Profit || Costing
Considering 10 Acres of land will have 6000 mango trees. And the result is based on the average yield of each mango tree.
Average Expenditure on 10 Acre of Land.
Considering a UHDP Mango cultivation consists of 600 mango trees.These will be expenditure.
Land Preparation and Levelling–
According to research Rs, 5000 will be spent on levelling including machinery and labour.
So to level 10 Acres of approximately Rs 60,000 will be spent.
Fencing Of Land
An average of Rs 16,000 is require to fence the 1 Acre of Land. Including the gates.
So for 10 Acres ,approximately Rs. 1,80,0000 will be requiree.
10 Borewells will be required for watering and irrigation of the trees and intercropping plants. An average borewell costs Rs 16,000 for a farmer. So more than Rs 1,70,000 will be spent on including the labor cost.
Labor Room, Godowns
To maintain the land one will be required to establish infrastructures like labor rooms where laborers can stay and showdowns will be require to store important materials and fertilizers.
On 10 Acres of land at least 4 infrastructures are required that will cost around Rs. 1,20,000
An average farmer spends Rs 10,000 on different types of tools on an acre of land.So one should have a budget of at least Rs 60,000 if they are farming mangoes on 10 acres of land.
Cost of Planting Materials:
In UHDP farming, an acre of land contains an average of 100 trees of mango as the distance between the plants is 6 meters.
So planting 100 trees of mango will cost around Rs 7000 and Rs 70,000 on 10 acres of land.
Manure and Fertilizers :
To get the maximum yield of mangoes, one should use proper manures and fertilizers. Average Indian farmers told us that they use Rs 5,000 -Rs 7,000 on Manures and fertilizers in one acre of land over the year.
That will add more Rs,70,000 – Rs 80,000 to our budget if we are planning to do the same on 10 acres of land.
Plant Protection Measures:
To control pests and insecticides the farmers invest about Rs 5,000 over the year on a single acre of land. So add Rs.50,000 to the existing budget.
Manpower cost :
To maintain 10 acres of land approximately 50 laborers are require having each an annual salary of approximately 10,000.
So alone the cost of manpower of these laborers will add a large amount of Rs 500k in the budget.
Intercropping Cost :
A lot of empty pieces of land will be left empty which can be used to grow different types of vegetables and other crops. Add Rs 50,000 to the budget for 10 Acres of intercropping in a year.
In orchards, we need to supply irrigation at regular intervals so a lot of electricity will be used costing us Rs 40,000 years for the 10 acres of land.
Rs 20,000 must be considered as miscellaneous
Total Summary Of Expenditure of maintaining 10 acres of land of the 1st year is a huge sum of Rs 13,95,000
Income From UHDP Mango Farming.
The yield of mango starts form the year of 4-5th year. So we are considering 5th year to calculate profit. At Chandrapur Market in Mumbai, the cost of 100kg of mango was between Rs 3,000 and Rs 4,000 in the year 2019.
Revenue in 3rd Year if 1600kg of mangoes are yielded: Rs 64,000 @Rs 40 per kg
Revenue in 4th Year if 2400 kg of mangoes are yielded: Rs 1,20,000 @Rs 50 per kg
Revenue in 5th Year if 4800 kg of mangoes are yield: Rs 2,52,000 @Rs 52 per kg
Revenue in 6th Year if 9600 kg of mangoes are yield: Rs 5,28,000 @Rs 55 per kg
Revenue in 7th Year if 19,200 kg of mangoes are yield: Rs 1,152,000 @Rs 60 per kg
Revenue in 8th Year if 24,000 kg of mangoes are yield: Rs 1,488,000 @Rs 62 per kg
Revenue in 9th Year if 48,000 kg of mangoes are yield: Rs 3,120,000@Rs 65 per kg
Revenue in 10th Year if 64,000 kg of mangoes are yield: Rs 4,48,000 @Rs 70 per kg
|Age of Mango||Mango Production Per Year||Total Production(in kg)||Rate||Revenue||Profit|